The government implemented a number of direct taxes for nonresidents and later for local companies and citizens only at the end of 2007 as a result of global financial crisis. The first fire pump purchased by the government was acquired in 1943.

The economic situation worsened, as the populace was divided over the Qüestió d'Andorra – the "Andorran Question" in relation to the Eastern Question). [142], Despite not being involved in any fighting during the First World War, Andorra was technically the longest combatant, as the country was left out of the Versailles Peace Conference, technically remaining at war with Germany from its original declaration of war in 1914 until 24 September 1958 when Andorra officially declared peace with Germany. The magistrates and judges are appointed by the High Court, as is the president of the Criminal Law Court. Now the prison is situated in other place in Andorra la Vella. The inhabitants of the valleys were traditionally associated with the Iberians and historically located in Andorra as the Iberian tribe Andosins or Andosini (Ἀνδοσίνους) during the 7th and 2nd centuries BC. In 1940 only the intervention by papal nuncio prevented the intrusion by German (Southern France) and Spanish (from La Seu-de-Urgell) troops into Andorra. On 8 July 1934 Boris issued a proclamation in Urgell, declaring himself Boris I, King of Andorra,[94] simultaneously declaring war on the Bishop of Urgell and approving the King's constitution on 10 July. [81] The struggles continued between pro-bishops, pro-French, and nationalists based on the troubles of Canillo in 1882 and 1885.[82][83][84]. During WW2, 1939-1945, Andorra maintained a neutral position, though shelter was given to many refugees.

up by the crew of one of the rescue ships. The current head of government is Xavier Espot Zamora of the Democrats for Andorra (DA). [108][109] Certain groups organized themselves to help victims of oppression in Nazi-occupied countries, while participating in smuggling to help Andorra survive. In 1866, the syndic Guillem d'Areny-Plandolit led the reformist group in a Council General of 24 members elected by suffrage limited to heads of families. Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Catalan: Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra[1] (Catalan: Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France. Its territory often sheltered both Carlists and their rivals. Roger-Bernard II and Ermessenda shared ruled over Andorra with the bishop of Urgell. The Visigoths remained in the valleys for 200 years, during which time Christianity spread. Andorra's borders have remained unchanged since 1278. Andorrans enjoyed the benefits of a neutral state: they didn’t serve in the army, didn’t pay military contributions and took profit from free transfers of goods through the Pyrenees.

The Andorran government encourages the use of Catalan. Later, at the end of the 11th century, the first iron foundries began to appear in Northern Parishes like Ordino, much appreciated by the master artisans who developed the art of the forges, an important economic activity in the country from the 15th century. During World War II, the Germans used these captured half-tracks extensively under the name Leichter Zugkraftwagen 37 (Zg Kw 304 t Typ 107). Bills may be presented to the council as Private Members' Bills by three of the local Parish Councils jointly or by at least one tenth of the citizens of Andorra. It is known as a principality as it is a diarchy headed by two princes: the Bishop of Urgell in Catalonia, Spain, and the President of the French Republic. Some of them were clad only As terrorist and hostage situations are a rare threat to the country, the GIPA is commonly assigned to prisoner escort duties, and at other times to routine policing. This is an apolitical forum for discussions on the Axis nations and related topics hosted by the Axis History Factbook in cooperation with Christian Ankerstjerne’s Panzerworld and Christoph Awender's WW2 day by day. 39% of Andorran children attend Andorran schools, 33% attend French schools, and 28% Spanish schools. Given its relative isolation, Andorra has existed outside the mainstream of European history, with few ties to countries other than France and Spain. This strife lasted until the lord of Aragon was able to force the bishop of Urgell, Pedro de Castrobono, and Count Roger Bernard III de Foix to come to a peaceful agreement. by Alp Guard » 08 Mar 2005, 16:12, Post Even today these are considered either the property of the state or the property of the communities (comus) that let the land on lease or concession not only to the citizens but also to the foreigners. At a referendum in 1985 the citizens approved a new Constitution; in accordance with it Andorra was proclaimed a “self-governing democratic state”. The Constitution officially came into force on May, 4 (March 2) 1993 after obtaining official permission from both co-Princes and General Council. In 1793, the French revolutionary government refused the traditional Andorran tribute as smacking of feudalism and renounced its suzerainty, despite the wish of the Andorrans to enjoy French protection and avoid being under exclusively Spanish influence. After the collapse of the Frankish empire in 843 the king of France Charles the Bald (823-877, a son of Louis the Pious, granted the territory of Andorra to SuñerI,  who was granted the title of count of Sardinia and Urgell in gratitude for his assistance in repelling the attacks by moors from Narbon. Some of the British troops on board made bitter comment on the conduct

Believed to have been created by Charlemagne, Andorra was ruled by the count of Urgell until 988, when it was transferred to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell. During the war, the most valuable treasures owned by the royal family of Liechtenstein that were located outside the country were moved to Liechtenstein and Britain for safekeeping, but the castles and 1,600 square kilometers (or 600 square miles) of land in Bohemia and Moravia in Czechoslovakia and Silesia in Germany would be seized by Germany. It is presided over by the member appointed by the Syndic General and the judges hold office for six-year terms. Andorra first participated at the Olympic Games in 1976.

World history. Beginning in 1997 Andorra began to consolidate its position as a significant touristic and trading center of Europe. [91] The 5 April 1933 Joves Andorrans seized the Andorran Parliament. Mr. Albert Pintat; President of the government of the principality of Andorra", Geography and History of the Principality of Andorra,, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States Department of State, Articles needing additional references from August 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Catalan-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the World Factbook, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 19:42. [88] It remained in an official state of belligerency until 1958 as it was not included in the Treaty of Versailles. In Southern France he contacted not only guides of stock caravans through the Pyrenees but also migrants from Andorra. [50], The local population based its economy during the Middle Ages in livestock and agriculture, as well as in furs and weavers. The diversity of landmarks, the different orientation of the valleys and the irregularity relief typical of the Mediterranean climates make the country have a great diversity of microclimates that hinder the general dominance of the high mountain climate. Parents may choose which system their children attend. Children between the ages of 6 and 16 are required by law to have full-time education. The Romanesque one allows to know the formation of the parochial communities, the relations of (social and political) power and the national culture. Andorra: Ethnic compositionEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc. With only a tiny proportion of Andorra’s land cultivable, the traditional economy centred on the pasturing of sheep and the harvesting of modest quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, olives, grapes, and potatoes. The same company also manages the technical infrastructure for national broadcasting of digital television and radio. [165] The announcement was made following a meeting in Paris between the Head of Government Antoni Marti and the French President and Prince of Andorra François Hollande. town in which they formerly carried on business and in which they were There are no direct taxes in the country – Andorra is well known as a “tax heaven”. by Windward » 25 Jun 2006, 06:54, Post

This line is operated by the SNCF. It is hoped that more survivors may yet be landed.

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